Aorta root dimensions in normal adults
Annulus (mm) 26 ± 3 23 ± 2
Annulus/BSA (mm/m²) 13 ± 1 13 ± 1
Sinus of Valsalva (mm) 34 ± 3 30 ± 3
Sinus of Valsalva/BSA (mm/m²) 17 ± 2 18 ± 2
Sinotubular junction (mm) 29 ± 3 26 ± 3
Sinotubular junction/BSA (mm/m²) 15 ± 2 15 ± 2
Proximal ascending aorta (mm) 30 ± 4 27 ± 4
Proximal ascending aorta (mm/m²) 15 ± 2 16 ± 3





Dilation of ascending aorta


Evaluation aortic dissection
Location of dissection
Type A (involvement of ascending aorta)
Type B (no involvement of ascending aorta)
Location of intimal tear
Location of re-entry and possibly another tear
Involvement of aortic arch and outgoing vessels
Differentiation between true and false lumen
Involvement of coronary arteries
Presence of aortic valve insufficiency
Pericardial effusion
LV function


Differentiation between true and false lumen
In M-mode moves the flap to the false lumen in systole.
Spontaneous echo contrast and thrombus can be seen in the false lumen.
On color Doppler, flow is shown slower systolic by secondary or re-entry to tear the false lumen.
The false lumen (especially in chronic dissections) tends to be larger in comparison to the true lumen.



Evaluation of coarctation aortae
Parameter Instrument commentary
Location Color doppler With the origin of the carotid and subclavian artery are landmarks for locating the coarctation.
Velocity profile Continuous wave Remember that collateral will reduce the systolic speed but the diastolic gradient persists. In the presence of diastolic forward flow is spoken of a hemodynamically significant coarctation. Typically CW Doppler signal of descending aorta with diastolic forward flow fitting in hemodynamically significant coarctation