Cardiomyopathy (CMP) is a generic name for various diseases of the heart muscle (myocardium). The function of the myocardium is affected, which usually leads to heart failure. The different cardiomyopathies can be classified by echocardiographic characteristics.
Click here for more information about cardiomyopathy. A short review of the main characteristics for each CMP is shown below.
• 65% Asymmetric hypertrophy of the myocardium, usually the ventricular septum sometimes apical involvement.
• 35% Symmetrical myocardial hypertrophy (not to be confused with Aortic stenosis or hypertension).
• Small LV lumen.
• Preserved systolic LV function (EF normal or slightly decreased).
• Predominant impaired diastolic LV function.
• About 1/3 have a resting dynamic outflow obstruction and 1/3 have a provocable gradient with exercise.
• Heart failure can be caused by the rigidity of the thickened heart muscle (diastolic heart failure), by an obstruction in the LVOT (SAM) associated with regurgitation of the mitral valve. The course of the disease is progressive.
• An increased risk of thromboembolic events, sudden cardiac death due to ventricular fibrillation.
• Also called isolated non compaction of the ventricular myocardium (INVM), a rare form of congenital heart disease.
• Spongy myocardium characterized by a thin compacted epicardial layer and a extensive non compacted endocardial layer.
• After HCM and DCM, the most common cause of primary cardiomyopathy in children.
• It is a birth defect that occurs in the 20th week of pregnancy.
• Heart failure, threatening ventricular arrhythmias, an increased risk of thrombus formation and systemic embolic events.
• Echocardiographic features:
- Prominently trabeculated myocardium with deep recesses that communicate with the LV lumen.
- Hypokinesia and myocardial thickening localized to the apex, mid-lateral and mid inferior walls.
- Ratio of the thickness of non-compacted to compacted myocardium at end-systole ≥ 2:1.
- Color Doppler flow showing in the recesses.
• Jenni criteria (Heart 2007).
• Stiff and thickened myocardium.
• The 2nd most common form of cardiomyopathy and may be classified as primary (e.g., endomyocardial fibrosis, Löffler’s endocarditis, idiopathic restrictive cardiomyopathy) or secondary. Causes of secondary restrictive cardiomyopathy include infiltrative diseases (e.g., amyloidosis, sarcoidosis, radiation carditis) and storage diseases (e.g., hemochromatosis, glycogen storage disorders, Fabry’s disease).