Prosthetic Valves

 

 

 

Normal Values for Aortic Valve bioprothesis

Valve Type Size (mm) Peak gradient (mmHg) Mean gradient (mmHg) EOA (cm2)
Baxter Perimount Stented bovine pericardial 19 32.5 ± 8.5 19.5 ± 5.5 1.3 ± 0.2
21 24.9 ± 7.7 13.8 ± 4.0 1.3 ± 0.3
23 19.9 ± 7.4 11.5 ± 3.9 1.6 ± 0.3
25 16.5 ± 7.8 10.7 ± 3.8 1.6 ± 0.4
27 12.8 ± 5.4 4.8 ± 2.2 2.0 ± 0.4
Biocor Stented porcine 23 30.0 ± 10.7 20 ± 6.6 1.3 ± 0.3
25 23.0 ± 7.9 16 ± 5.1 1.7 ± 0.4
27 22.0 ± 6.5 15.0 ± 3.7 2.2 ± 0.4
Bioflo Stented bovine pericardial 19 37.2 ± 8.8 26.4 ± 5.5 0.7 ± 0.1
21 28.7 ± 6.2 18.7 ± 5.5 1.1 ± 0.1
Carpentier Edwards Pericardial Stented bovine pericardial 19 32.1 ± 3.4 24.2 ± 8.6 1.2 ± 0.3
21 25.7 ± 9.9 20.3 ± 9.1 1.5 ± 0.4
23 21.7 ± 8.6 13.0 ± 5.3 1.8 ± 0.3
25 16.5 ± 5.4 9.0 ± 2.3
Carpentier Edwards Perimount Stended 19 32.5 ± 8.5 19.5 ± 5.5
21 24.9 ± 7.7 13.8 ± 4.0
23 19.9 ± 7.4 11.5 ± 3.9
25 16.5 ± 7.8 10.7 ± 3.8
27 12.8 ± 5.4 4.8 ± 2.2
Carpentier Edwards Standard Stented porcine 19 43.5 ± 12.7 25.6 ± 8.0 0.9 ± 0.2
21 27.7 ± 7.6 17.3 ± 6.2 1.5 ± 0.3
23 28.9 ± 7.5 16.1 ± 6.2 1.7 ± 0.5
25 24.0 ± 7.1 12.9 ± 4.6 1.9 ± 0.5
27 22.1 ± 8.2 12.1 ± 5.5 2.3 ± 0.6
29 9.9 ± 2.9 2.8 ± 0.5
Carpentier Supra-Annular Stented porcine 19 34.1 ± 2.7 1.1 ± 0.1
21 28.0 ± 10.5 17.5 ± 3.8 1.4 ± 0.9
23 25.3 ± 10.5 13.4 ± 4.5 1.6 ± 0.6
25 24.4 ± 7.6 13.2 ± 4.8 1.8 ± 0.4
27 16.7 ± 4.7 8.8 ± 2.8 1.9 ± 0.7
Cryolife Stentless 19 9.0 ± 2.0 1.5 ± 0.3
21 6.6 ± 2.9 1.7 ± 0.4
23 6.0 ± 2.3 2.3 ± 0.2
25 6.1 ± 2.6 2.6 ± 0.2
27 4.0 ± 2.4 2.8 ± 0.3
Edwards Intuity Sutureless 19 25.0 ± 2.4 1.3 ± 0.2
21 10.7 ± 3.3 1.6 ± 0.2
23 10.6 ± 3.5 1.8 ± 0.2
25 9.9 ± 4.1 1.8 ± 0.2
27 9.0 ± 3.8 1.8 ± 0.2
Edwards Magna Ease Stended 19 14.9 ± 3.9 1.19 ± 0.44
21 15.1 ± 6.5 1.26 ± 0.32
23 12.4 ± 45 1.68 ± 0.34
25 12.3 ± 4.8 1.77 ± 0.37
27 9.4 ± 4.0 2.05 ± 0.36
Extended Biocor Stentless 19 17.5 ± 6.5 9.6 ± 3.6 1.4 ± 0.4
21 17.5 ± 6.5 9.6 ± 3.6 1.4 ± 0.4
23 14.7 ± 7.3 7.7 ± 3.8 1.7 ± 0.4
25 14.0 ± 4.3 7.4 ± 2.5 1.8 ± 0.4
Hancock Stented porcine 21 18.0 ± 6.0 12.0 ± 2.0
23 16.0 ± 2.0 11.0 ± 2.0
25 15.0 ± 3.0 10.0 ± 3.0
Hancock II Stented porcine 21 14.8 ± 4.1 1.3 ± 0.4
23 34.0 ± 13.0 16.6 ± 8.5 1.3 ± 0.4
25 22.0 ± 5.3 10.8 ± 2.8 1.6 ± 0.4
29 16.2 ± 1.5 8.2 ± 1.7 1.6 ± 0.2
Homograft Homograft valves ?? ?? ?? ??
Intact Stented porcine 19 40.4 ± 15.4 24.5 ± 9.3
21 40.9 ± 15.6 19.6 ± 8.1 1.6 ± 0.4
23 32.7 ± 9.6 19.0 ± 6.1 1.6 ± 0.4
25 29.7 ± 15.0 17.7 ± 7.9 1.7 ± 0.3
27 25.0 ± 7.6 15.0 ± 4.5
Ionescu-Shiley Stented bovine pericardial 17 23.8 ± 3.4 0.9 ± 0.1
19 19.7 ± 5.9 13.3 ± 3.9 1.1 ± 0.1
21 26.6 ± 9.0
23 15.6 ± 4.4
Labcor Santiago Stented bovine pericardial 19 18.6 ± 5.0 11.8 ± 3.3 1.2 ± 0.1
21 17.5 ± 6.6 8.2 ± 4.5 1.3 ± 0.1
23 14.8 ± 5.2 7.8 ± 2.9 1.8 ± 0.2
25 12.3 ± 3.4 6.8 ± 2.0 2.1 ± 0.3
Labcor Synergy Stented porcine 21 24.3 ± 8.1 13.3 ± 4.2 1.1 ± 0.3
23 27.3 ± 13.7 15.3 ± 6.9 1.4 ± 0.4
25 22.5 ± 11.9 13.2 ± 6.4 1.5 ± 0.4
27 17.8 ± 7.0 10.6 ± 4.6 1.8 ± 0.5
Medtronic Freestyle Stentless 19 13.0 ± 3.9
21 9.1 ± 5.1 1.4 ± 0.3
23 11.0 ± 4.0 8.1 ± 4.6 1.7 ± 0.5
25 5.3 ± 3.1 2.1 ± 0.5
27 4.6 ± 3.1 2.5 ± 0.1
Medtronic Mosaic Stented porcine 21 14.2 ± 5.0 1.4 ± 0.4
23 23.8 ± 11.0 13.7 ± 4.8 1.5 ± 0.4
25 22.5 ± 10.0 11.7 ± 5.1 1.8 ± 0.5
27 10.4 ± 4.3 1.9 ± 0.1
29 11.1 ± 4.3 2.1 ± 0.2
Mitroflow Stented bovine pericardial 19 18.6 ± 5.3 13.1 ± 3.3 1.1 ± 0.2
Prima Stentless 21 28.8 ± 6.0 13.7 ± 1.9 1.4 ± 0.7
23 21.5 ± 7.5 11.5 ± 4.9 1.5 ± 0.3
25 22.1 ± 12.5 11.6 ± 7.2 1.8 ± 0.5
Sorin Pericarbon Stentless 19 36.5 ± 9.0 28.9 ± 7.3 1.2 ± 0.5
21 28.0 ± 13.3 23.8 ± 11.1 1.3 ± 0.6
23 27.5 ± 11.5 23.2 ± 7.6 1.5 ± 0.5
Sorin Crown Stended 19 18.7 ± 5.1 10.3 ± 3.0 1.13 ± 0.17
21 20.2 15.4
23 14.04 ± 4.91 7.56 ± 3.38
25 17.0 ± 11.31 10.8 ± 6.51
27 13.0 ± 3.0 6.57 ± 1.7
St. Jude Medical Stentless 21 22.6 ± 14.5 10.7 ± 7.2 1.3 ± 0.6
23 16.2 ± 9.0 8.2 ± 4.7 1.6 ± 0.6
25 12.7 ± 8.2 6.3 ± 4.1 1.8 ± 0.5
27 10.1 ± 5.8 5.0 ± 2.9 2.0 ± 0.3
29 7.7 ± 4.4 4.1 ± 2.4 2.4 ± 0.6
St Jude Medial Epic Stended 19 43.5 ± 12.7 25.6 ± 8.0
21 27.2 ± 7.6 17.3 ± 6.2
23 28.9 ± 7.5 16.1 ± 6.2
25 24.0 ± 7.1 12.9 ± 4.6
27 22.1 ± 8.2 12.1 ± 5.5
29 9.9 ± 2.9
St Jude Medical Perceval Sutureless 21 22.6 ± 10.6 10.9 ± 5.1 1.40 ± 0.37
23 21.1 ± 8.4 10.5 ± 4.5 1.52 ± 0.41
25 17.9 ± 6.5 9.5 ± 3.8 1.49 ± 0.35

Normal Values for Aortic Valve Mechanical prothesis

Valve Type Size (mm) Peak gradient (mmHg) Mean gradient (mmHg) EOA (cm2)
ATS Bileaflet 19 47.0 ± 12.6 25.3 ± 8 1.1 ± 0.3
21 23.7 ± 6.8 15.9 ± 5.0 1.4 ± 0.5
23 14.4 ± 4.9 1.7 ± 0.5
25 11.3 ± 3.7 2.1 ± 0.7
27 8.4 ± 3.7 2.5 ± 0.1
29 8.0 ± 3.0 3.1 ± 0.8
18 21.0 ± 1.8 1.2 ± 0.3
20 21.4 ± 4.2 11.1 ± 3.5 1.3 ± 0.3
22 18.7 ± 8.3 10.5 ± 4.5 1.7 ± 0.4
24 15.1 ± 5.6 7.5 ± 3.1 2.0 ± 0.6
26 6.0 ± 2.0 2.1 ± 0.4
Bjork-Shiley Single tilting disc 21 38.9 ± 11.9 21.8 ± 3.4 1.1 ± 0.3
23 28.8 ± 11.2 15.7 ± 5.3 1.3 ± 0.3
25 23.7 ± 8.2 13.0 ± 5.0 1.5 ± 0.4
27 10.0 ± 2.0 1.6 ± 0.3
Carbomedics Reduced Bileaflet 19 43.4 ± 1.2 24.4 ± 1.2 1.2 ± 0.1
Carbomedics Standard Bileaflet 19 38.0 ± 12.8 18.9 ± 8.3 1.0 ± 0.3
21 26.8 ± 10.1 12.9 ± 5.4 1.5 ± 0.4
23 22.5 ± 7.4 11.0 ± 4.6 1.4 ± 0.3
25 19.6 ± 7.8 9.1 ± 3.5 1.8 ± 0.4
27 17.5 ± 7.1 7.9 ± 3.2 2.2 ± 0.2
29 9.1 ± 4.7 5.6 ± 3.0 3.2 ± 1.6
Carbomedics Tophat Bileaflet 21 30.2 ± 10.9 14.9 ± 5.4 1.2 ± 0.3
23 24.2 ± 7.6 12.5 ± 4.4 1.4 ± 0.4
25 9.5 ± 2.9 1.6 ± 0.32
Edwards Duromedics Bileaflet 21 39.0 ± 13
23 32.0 ± 8.0
25 26.0 ± 10.0
27 24.0 ± 10.0
Edwards Mira Bileaflet 19 18.2 ± 5.3 1.2 ± 0.4
21 13.3 ± 4.3 1.6 ± 0.4
23 14.7 ± 2.8 1.6 ± 0.6
25 13.1 ± 3.8 1.9
MCRI On-X Bileaflet 19 21.3 ± 10.8 11.8 ± 3.4 1.5 ± 0.2
21 16.4 ± 5.9 9.9 ± 3.6 1.7 ± 0.4
23 15.9 ± 6.4 8.6 ± 3.4 1.9 ± 0.6
25 16.5 ± 10.2 6.9 ± 4.3 2.4 ± 0.6
Medtronic Advantage Bileaflet 23 10.4 ± 3.1 2.2 ± 0.3
25 9.0 ± 3.7 2.8 ± 0.6
27 7.6 ± 3.6 3.3 ± 0.7
29 6.1 ± 3.8 3.9 ±0.7
Medtronic Hall Single tilting disc 20 34.4 ± 13.1 17.1 ± 5.3 1.2 ± 0.5
21 26.9 ± 10.5 14.1 ± 5.9 1.1 ± 0.2
23 26.9 ± 8.9 13.5 ± 4.8 1.4 ± 0.4
25 17.1 ± 7.0 9.5 ± 4.3 1.5 ± 0.5
27 18.9 ± 9.7 8.7 ± 5.6 1.9 ± 0.2
Monostrut Bjork-Shiley Single tilting disc 19 27.4 ± 8.8
21 27.5 ± 3.1 20.5 ± 6.2
23 20.3 ± 0.7 17.4 ± 6.4
25 16.1 ± 4.9
27 11.4 ± 3.8
Omnicarbon Single tilting disc 21 37.4 ± 12.8 20.4 ± 5.4 1.3 ± 0.5
23 28.8 ± 9.1 17.4 ± 4.9 1.5 ± 0.3
25 23.7 ± 8.1 13.2 ± 4.6 1.9 ± 0.5
27 20.1 ± 4.2 12.4 ± 2.9 2.1 ± 0.4
Omniscience Single tilting disc 21 50.8 ± 2.8 28.2 ± 2.2 0.9 ± 0.1
23 39.8 ± 8.7 20.1 ± 5.1 1.0 ± 0.1
Sorin Bicarbon Bileaflet 19 30.1 ± 4.5 16.7 ± 2.0 1.4 ± 0.1
21 22.0 ± 7.1 10.0 ± 3.3 1.2 ± 0.4
23 16.8 ± 6.1 7.7 ± 3.3 1.5 ± 0.2
25 11.2 ± 3.1 5.6 ± 1.6 2.4 ± 0.3
St. Jude Medical Haem Plus Bileaflet 19 28.5 ± 10.7 17.0 ± 7.8 1.9 ± 0.1
21 16.3 ± 17.0 10.6 ± 5.1 1.8 ± 0.5
23 16.8 ± 7.3 12.1 ± 4.2 1.7 ± 0.5
St. Jude Medical Regent Bileaflet 19 20.6 ± 12 11.0 ± 4.9 1.6 ± 0.4
21 15.6 ± 9.4 8.0 ± 4.8 2.0 ± 0.7
23 12.8 ± 6.8 6.9 ± 3.5 2.3 ± 0.9
25 11.7 ± 6.8 5.6 ± 3.2 2.5 ± 0.8
27 7.9 ± 5.5 3.5 ± 1.7 3.6 ± 0.5
St. Jude Medical Standard Bileaflet 19 42.0 ± 10.0 24.5 ± 5.8 1.5 ± 0.1
21 25.7 ± 9.5 15.2 ± 5.0 1.4 ± 0.4
23 21.8 ± 7.5 13.4 ± 5.6 1.6 ± 0.4
25 18.9 ± 7.3 11.0 ± 5.3 1.9 ± 0.5
27 13.7 ± 4.2 8.4 ± 3.4 2.5 ± 0.4
29 13.5 ± 5.8 7.0 ± 1.7 2.8 ± 0.5
Starr Edwards Caged ball 23 32.6 ± 12.8 22.0 ± 9.0 1.1 ± 0.2
24 34.1 ± 10.3 22.1 ± 7.5 1.1 ± 0.3
26 31.8 ± 9.0 19.7 ± 6.1
27 30.8 ± 6.3 18.5 ± 3.7
29 29.0 ± 9.3 16.3 ± 5.5

Normal Values for Mitral Valve bioprothesis

Valve Type Size (mm) PGmax (mmHg) PGmean(mmHg) Vmax (m/s) PHT (ms) EOA (cm2)
Biocor Stentless  27 13 ± 1
29 14 ± 2.5
31 11.5 ± 0.5
33 12 ± 0.5
Bioflo pericardial Stented  25 10 ± 2 6.3 ± 1.5 2.0 ± 0.1
27 9.5 ± 2.6 5.4 ± 1.2 2.0± 0.3
29 5 ± 2.8 3.6 ± 1 2.4 ± 0.2
31 4.0 2.0 2.3
Carpentier-Edwards Stented  27 6 ± 2 1.7 ± 0.3 98 ± 28
29 4.7 ± 2 1.76 ± 0.27 92 ± 14
31 4.4 ± 2 1.54 ± 0.15 92 ± 19
33 6 ± 3 93 ± 12
Carpentier-Edwards pericardial Stented  27 3.6 1.6 100
29 5.25 ± 2.36 1.67 ± 0.3 110 ± 15
31 4.05 ± 0.83 1.53 ± 0.1 90 ± 11
23 1.0 0.8 80
Hancock I (or NOS) Stented  27 10 ± 4 5 ± 2 1.3 ± 0.8
29 7 ± 3 2.46 ± 0.79 115 ± 20 1.5 ± 0.2
31 4 ± 0.86 4.86 ± 1.69 95 ± 17 1.6 ± 0.2
33 3 ± 2 3.87 ± 2 90 ± 12 1.9 ± 0.2
Hancock II Stented 27 2.21 ± 0.14
29 2.77 ± 0.11
31 2.84 ± 0.1
33 3.15 ± 0.22
Hancock pericardial Stented  29 2.61 ± 1.39 1.42 ± 0.14 105 ± 36
31 3.57 ± 1.02 1.51 ± 0.27 81 ± 23
Ionescu-Shiley Stented  25 4.87 ± 1.08 1.43 ± 0.15 93 ± 11
27 3.21 ± 0.82 1.31 ± 0.24 100 ± 28
29 3.22 ± 0.57 1.38 ± 0.2 85 ± 8
31 3.63 ± 0.9 1.45 ± 0.06 100 ± 36
Ionescu-Shiley low profile Stented 29 3.31 ± 0.96 1.36 ± 0.25 80 ± 30
31 2.74 ± 0.37 1.33 ± 0.14 79 ± 15
Labcor-Santiago pericardial Stented  25 8.7 4.5 97 2.2
27 5.6 ± 2.3 2.8 ± 1.5 85 ± 18 2.12 ± 0.48
29 6.2 ± 2.1 3 ± 1.3 80 ± 34 2.11 ± 0.73
Medtronic Intact Porcine Stented  29 3.5 ± 0.51 1.6 ± 0.22
31 4.2 ± 1.44 1.6 ± 0.26
33 4 ± 1.3 1.4 ± 0.24
35 3.2 ± 1.77 1.3 ± 0.5
Mitroflow Stented  25 6.9 2.0 90
27 3.07 ± 0.91 1.5 90 ± 20
29 3.5 ± 1.65 1.43 ± 0.29 102 ± 21
31 3.85 ± 0.81 1.32 ± 0.26 91 ± 22
Quadrileaflet bovine pericardial Stentless  26 2.2 ± 1.7 1.6 103 ± 31 1.7
28 1.58 ± 0.25 1.7 ± 0.6
30 1.42 ± 0.32 2.3 ± 0.4
Wessex Stented  29 3.69 ± 0.61 1.66 ± 0.17 83 ± 19
31 3.31 ± 0.83 1.41 ± 0.25 80 ± 21

Normal Values for Mitral Valve Mechanical prothesis

Valve Type Size (mm) PGmax (mmHg) PGmean (mmHg) Vmax (m/s) PHT (ms) EOA (cm2)
Bjork-Shiley Tilting disc 23 1.7 115
25 12 ± 4 6 ± 2 1.75 ± 0.38 99 ± 27 1.72 ± 0.6
27 10 ± 4 5 ± 2 1.6 ± 0.49 89 ± 28 1.81 ± 0.54
29 7.83 ± 2.93 2.83 ± 1.27 1.37 ± 0.25 79 ± 17 2.1 ± 0.43
31 6 ± 3 2 ± 1.9 1.41 ± 0.26 70 ± 14 2.2 ± 0.3
Bjork-Shiley monostrut Tilting disc 23 5.0 1.9
25 13 ± 2.5 5.57 ± 2.3 1.8 ± 0.3
27 12 ± 2.5 4.53 ± 2.2 1.7 ± 0.4
29 13 ± 3 4.26 ± 1.6 1.6 ± 0.3
31 14 ± 4.5 4.9 ± 1.6 1.7 ± 0.3
Carbomedics Bileaflet 23 1.9 ± 0.1 126 ± 7
25 10.3 ± 2.3 3.6 ± 0.6 1.3 ± 0.1 93 ± 8 2.9 ± 0.8
27 8.79 ± 3.46 3.46 ± 1.03 1.61 ± 0.3 89 ± 20 2.9 ± 0.75
29 8.78 ± 2.9 3.39 ± 0.97 1.52 ± 0.3 88 ± 17 2.3 ± 0.4
31 8.87 ± 2.34 3.32 ± 0.87 1.61 ± 0.29 92 ± 24 2.8 ± 1.14
33 8.8 ± 2.2 4.8 ± 2.5 1.5 ± 0.2 93 ± 12
Duromedics Bileaflet 27 13 ± 6 5 ± 3 1.61 ± 0.4 75 ± 12
29 10 ± 4 3 ± 1 1.40 ± 0.25 85 ± 22
31 10.5 ± 4.33 3.3 ± 1.36 1.38 ± 0.27 81 ± 12
33 11.2 2.5 85
Lillehei-Kaster Tilting disc 18 1.7 140
20 1.7 67
22 1.56 ± 0.09 94 ± 22
25 1.38 ± 0.27 124 ± 46
Medtronic Hall Tilting disc 27 1.4 78
29 1.57 ± 0.1 69 ± 15
31 1.45 ± 0.12 77 ± 17
Omnicarbon Tilting disc 23 8.0
25 6.05 ± 1.81 1.77 ± 0.24 102 ± 16
27 4.89 ± 2.05 1.63 ± 0.36 105 ± 33
29 4.93 ± 2.16 1.56 ± 0.27 120 ± 40
31 4.18 ± 1.4 1.3 ± 0.23 134 ± 31
33 4 ± 2
On-X Bileaflet 25 11.5 ± 3.2 5.3 ± 2.1 1.9 ± 1.1
27 10.3 ± 4.5 4.5 ± 1.6 2.2 ± 0.5
29 10.3 ± 4.5 4.5 ± 1.6 2.2 ± 0.5
31 9.8 ± 3.8 4.8 ± 2.4 2.5 ± 1.1
33 9.8 ± 3.8 4.8 ± 2.4 2.5 ± 1.1
Sorin Allcarbon Tilting disc 25 15 ± 0.25 4 ± 0.5 1.95 ± 0.02 70 ± 1
27 11 ± 2.75 4 ± 0.5 1.65 ± 0.21 82 ± 20
29 12 ± 3 4 ± 1.25 1.73 ± 0.22 80 ± 14
31 10 ± 1.5 4 ± 1 1.66 ± 0.11 83 ± 14
St. Jude Medical Bileaflet 23 4.0 1.5 160 1.0
25 2.5 ± 1 1.34 ± 1.12 75 ± 4 1.35 ± 0.17
27 11 ± 4 5 ± 1.82 1.61 ± 0.29 75 ± 10 1.67 ± 0.17
29 10 ± 3 4.15 ± 1.8 1.57 ± 0.29 85 ± 10 1.75 ± 0.24
31 12 ± 6 4.46 ± 2.22 1.59 ± 0.33 74 ± 13 2.03 ± 0.32
Starr-Edwards Caged ball 26 10.0 1.4
28 7 ± 2.75 1.9 ± 0.57
30 12.2 ± 4.6 6.99 ± 2.5 1.7 ± 0.3 125 ± 25 1.65 ± 0.4
32 11.5 ± 4.2 5.08 ± 2.5 1.7 ± 0.3 110 ± 25 1.98 ± 0.4
34 5.0 2.6

 

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