Tumor

Benigne

Cardiac arrest is a condition that is often encountered in the Emergency Department, Intensive Care Unit, Coronary Care Unit and the surgical wards. The use of ultrasound in resuscitation plays an increasingly important role since it is able to differentiate between the different causes of a cardiac arrest, which are not a direct consequence of a primary ventricular arrhythmia. The most common and reversible causes of cardiac arrest include: severe hypovolemia, pneumothorax, cardiac tamponade, and massive pulmonary embolism. Identifying the underlying cause of cardiac arrest remains one of the main clinical challenges. Therefore the CAUSE protocol is developed: the Cardiac Arrest Ultra-Sound Exam.

 

Primary benigne cardiac tumor
Tumor Description Location Size
Myxoma Most common primary cardiac tumor (50-75%). 90% atrial (LA 75%), 7% ventricular. 1-15cm (usually 5-6cm).
Fibroma Second most common primary cardiac tumor. Almost always ventricular (septal or apical). ± 10cm.
Papillair fibroelastoma Most common valve tumor. Whole heart, usually aortic valve (35%). ± 1cm.
Lipoma  Usually, on the basis of the endocardium. Whole heart including valves and pericardium. Up to ± 10 cm.
Rhabdomyoma Most common benign cardiac tumor in children. Mostly ventricular, no valve involvement. 1mm-9cm.
Hemangioma Blood tumor, proliferation of endothelial cells. Whole heart
Lambl's excrescences Valvular piece of string Ventricular side aortic valve. ± 1cm
Cysts Congenital unnatural body cavity lined with epithelium. Usually in the right atrium (right cardiofrenische corner).
Thrombi Clots of blood by slow blood flow. Left atrial appendage with atrial fibrillation
akinetic myocardial infarction
cardiomyopathies
prosthetic valves/infectious valves
atrial septal ASD / PFO

 

Myxoma LA

 

Maligne

Cardiac arrest is a condition that is often encountered in the Emergency Department, Intensive Care Unit, Coronary Care Unit and the surgical wards. The use of ultrasound in resuscitation plays an increasingly important role since it is able to differentiate between the different causes of a cardiac arrest, which are not a direct consequence of a primary ventricular arrhythmia. The most common and reversible causes of cardiac arrest include: severe hypovolemia, pneumothorax, cardiac tamponade, and massive pulmonary embolism. Identifying the underlying cause of cardiac arrest remains one of the main clinical challenges. Therefore the CAUSE protocol is developed: the Cardiac Arrest Ultra-Sound Exam.

 

Primary maligne cardiac tumor
Tumor Description Location
Angiosarcoma Most common primary malignant cardiac tumor 90% Right atrium
Rhabdomyosarcoma Second most common primary malignant cardiac tumor, often in children than adults Whole heart
Mesothelioma Covering visceral and parietal pericardium, no growth in endocardial.

 

Secundary maligne cardiac tumor
Metastases
Melanoma 
Lung cancer
Breast cancer
Sarcoma
Renal cell carcinoma
Leukemia
Lymphoma
Esophagus cancer
Hepatocellular carcinoma
Thyroid cancer

 

Location of most commen cardiac tumors
Location Tumor
Left atrium Myxoma
Thrombus
Papillary fibroelastoma
Sarcoma
Right atrium Myxoma
Angiosarcoma
Lymphoma
Thrombus
Papillair fibroelastoma
Left ventricle Fibroma
Rhobdomyoma
Thrombus
Papillair fibroelastoma
Right ventricle Fibroma
Rhabdomyoma
Angiosarcoma
Lymphoma
Thrombus
Papillair fibroelastoma

 

Papillar fibroelastoma proximal septum

 

 

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