Tumor

Benigne

Usually, a cardiac tumor is benign in nature. A benign tumor has a good prognosis, but thrombi, vegetations and some tumors is embolization the main risk.

 

 

Primary benigne cardiac tumor
Tumor Description Location Size
Myxoma Most common primary cardiac tumor (50-75%). 90% atrial (LA 75%), 7% ventricular. 1-15cm (usually 5-6cm).
Fibroma Second most common primary cardiac tumor. Almost always ventricular (septal or apical). ± 10cm.
Papillair fibroelastoma Most common valve tumor. Whole heart, usually aortic valve (35%). ± 1cm.
Lipoma  Usually, on the basis of the endocardium. Whole heart including valves and pericardium. Up to ± 10 cm.
Rhabdomyoma Most common benign cardiac tumor in children. Mostly ventricular, no valve involvement. 1mm-9cm.
Hemangioma Blood tumor, proliferation of endothelial cells. Whole heart
Lambl's excrescences Valvular piece of string Ventricular side aortic valve. ± 1cm
Cysts Congenital unnatural body cavity lined with epithelium. Usually in the right atrium (right cardiofrenische corner).
Thrombi Clots of blood by slow blood flow. Left atrial appendage with atrial fibrillation
Left ventricle with akinetic myocardial infarction
Left ventricle with cardiomyopathies
prosthetic valves/infectious valves
atrial septal ASD / PFO

 

 

Myxoma LA

 

 

Maligne

Primary malignant tumors are very rare. Most common malignant cardiac tumors are secondary tumors derived from primary diseases (see below). 3% of all patients with cancer receive cardiac metastases through the four "pathways": direct infitration, haematogenically (through blood), lymphatic and vessels (IVC, pulmonary veins). Malignant tumors have a poor prognosis: In malignant tumors the main risk is the malignancy itself.

 

 

Primary malignant cardiac tumor
Tumor Description Location
Angiosarcoma Most common primary malignant cardiac tumor 90% Right atrium
Rhabdomyosarcoma Second most common primary malignant cardiac tumor, often in children than adults Whole heart
Mesothelioma Covering visceral and parietal pericardium, no growth in endocardial.

 

 

Secundary maligne cardiac tumor
Metastases
Melanoma 
Lung cancer
Breast cancer
Sarcoma
Renal cell carcinoma
Leukemia
Lymphoma
Esophagus cancer
Hepatocellular carcinoma
Thyroid cancer

 

 

Location of most common cardiac tumors
Location Tumor
Left atrium Myxoma
Thrombus
Papillary fibroelastoma
Sarcoma
Right atrium Myxoma
Angiosarcoma
Lymphoma
Thrombus
Papillair fibroelastoma
Left ventricle Fibroma
Rhobdomyoma
Thrombus
Papillair fibroelastoma
Right ventricle Fibroma
Rhabdomyoma
Angiosarcoma
Lymphoma
Thrombus
Papillair fibroelastoma

 

 

Papillar fibroelastoma proximal septum