Prosthetic valves

 

Normal Values for Aortic Valve Biologic Prothesis

ValveTypeSize (mm)Peak gradient (mmHg)Mean gradient (mmHg)EOA (cm2)
Baxter PerimountStented bovine pericardial1932.5 ± 8.519.5 ± 5.51.3 ± 0.2
2124.9 ± 7.713.8 ± 4.01.3 ± 0.3
2319.9 ± 7.411.5 ± 3.91.6 ± 0.3
2516.5 ± 7.810.7 ± 3.81.6 ± 0.4
2712.8 ± 5.44.8 ± 2.22.0 ± 0.4
BiocorStented porcine2330.0 ± 10.720 ± 6.61.3 ± 0.3
2523.0 ± 7.916 ± 5.11.7 ± 0.4
2722.0 ± 6.515.0 ± 3.72.2 ± 0.4
BiofloStented bovine pericardial1937.2 ± 8.826.4 ± 5.50.7 ± 0.1
2128.7 ± 6.218.7 ± 5.51.1 ± 0.1
Carpentier Edwards PericardialStented bovine pericardial1932.1 ± 3.424.2 ± 8.61.2 ± 0.3
2125.7 ± 9.920.3 ± 9.11.5 ± 0.4
2321.7 ± 8.613.0 ± 5.31.8 ± 0.3
2516.5 ± 5.49.0 ± 2.3
Carpentier Edwards PerimountStended1932.5 ± 8.519.5 ± 5.5
2124.9 ± 7.713.8 ± 4.0
2319.9 ± 7.411.5 ± 3.9
2516.5 ± 7.810.7 ± 3.8
2712.8 ± 5.44.8 ± 2.2
Carpentier Edwards StandardStented porcine1943.5 ± 12.725.6 ± 8.00.9 ± 0.2
2127.7 ± 7.617.3 ± 6.21.5 ± 0.3
2328.9 ± 7.516.1 ± 6.21.7 ± 0.5
2524.0 ± 7.112.9 ± 4.61.9 ± 0.5
2722.1 ± 8.212.1 ± 5.52.3 ± 0.6
299.9 ± 2.92.8 ± 0.5
Carpentier Supra-AnnularStented porcine1934.1 ± 2.71.1 ± 0.1
2128.0 ± 10.517.5 ± 3.81.4 ± 0.9
2325.3 ± 10.513.4 ± 4.51.6 ± 0.6
2524.4 ± 7.613.2 ± 4.81.8 ± 0.4
2716.7 ± 4.78.8 ± 2.81.9 ± 0.7
CryolifeStentless199.0 ± 2.01.5 ± 0.3
216.6 ± 2.91.7 ± 0.4
236.0 ± 2.32.3 ± 0.2
256.1 ± 2.62.6 ± 0.2
274.0 ± 2.42.8 ± 0.3
Edwards IntuitySutureless1925.0 ± 2.41.3 ± 0.2
2110.7 ± 3.31.6 ± 0.2
2310.6 ± 3.51.8 ± 0.2
259.9 ± 4.11.8 ± 0.2
279.0 ± 3.81.8 ± 0.2
Edwards Magna EaseStended1914.9 ± 3.91.19 ± 0.44
2115.1 ± 6.51.26 ± 0.32
2312.4 ± 451.68 ± 0.34
2512.3 ± 4.81.77 ± 0.37
279.4 ± 4.02.05 ± 0.36
Extended BiocorStentless1917.5 ± 6.59.6 ± 3.61.4 ± 0.4
2117.5 ± 6.59.6 ± 3.61.4 ± 0.4
2314.7 ± 7.37.7 ± 3.81.7 ± 0.4
2514.0 ± 4.37.4 ± 2.51.8 ± 0.4
HancockStented porcine2118.0 ± 6.012.0 ± 2.0
2316.0 ± 2.011.0 ± 2.0
2515.0 ± 3.010.0 ± 3.0
Hancock IIStented porcine2114.8 ± 4.11.3 ± 0.4
2334.0 ± 13.016.6 ± 8.51.3 ± 0.4
2522.0 ± 5.310.8 ± 2.81.6 ± 0.4
2916.2 ± 1.58.2 ± 1.71.6 ± 0.2
HomograftHomograft valves????????
IntactStented porcine1940.4 ± 15.424.5 ± 9.3
2140.9 ± 15.619.6 ± 8.11.6 ± 0.4
2332.7 ± 9.619.0 ± 6.11.6 ± 0.4
2529.7 ± 15.017.7 ± 7.91.7 ± 0.3
2725.0 ± 7.615.0 ± 4.5
Ionescu-ShileyStented bovine pericardial1723.8 ± 3.40.9 ± 0.1
1919.7 ± 5.913.3 ± 3.91.1 ± 0.1
2126.6 ± 9.0
2315.6 ± 4.4
Labcor SantiagoStented bovine pericardial1918.6 ± 5.011.8 ± 3.31.2 ± 0.1
2117.5 ± 6.68.2 ± 4.51.3 ± 0.1
2314.8 ± 5.27.8 ± 2.91.8 ± 0.2
2512.3 ± 3.46.8 ± 2.02.1 ± 0.3
Labcor SynergyStented porcine2124.3 ± 8.113.3 ± 4.21.1 ± 0.3
2327.3 ± 13.715.3 ± 6.91.4 ± 0.4
2522.5 ± 11.913.2 ± 6.41.5 ± 0.4
2717.8 ± 7.010.6 ± 4.61.8 ± 0.5
Medtronic FreestyleStentless1913.0 ± 3.9
219.1 ± 5.11.4 ± 0.3
2311.0 ± 4.08.1 ± 4.61.7 ± 0.5
255.3 ± 3.12.1 ± 0.5
274.6 ± 3.12.5 ± 0.1
Medtronic MosaicStented porcine2114.2 ± 5.01.4 ± 0.4
2323.8 ± 11.013.7 ± 4.81.5 ± 0.4
2522.5 ± 10.011.7 ± 5.11.8 ± 0.5
2710.4 ± 4.31.9 ± 0.1
2911.1 ± 4.32.1 ± 0.2
MitroflowStented bovine pericardial1918.6 ± 5.313.1 ± 3.31.1 ± 0.2
PrimaStentless2128.8 ± 6.013.7 ± 1.91.4 ± 0.7
2321.5 ± 7.511.5 ± 4.91.5 ± 0.3
2522.1 ± 12.511.6 ± 7.21.8 ± 0.5
Sorin PericarbonStentless1936.5 ± 9.028.9 ± 7.31.2 ± 0.5
2128.0 ± 13.323.8 ± 11.11.3 ± 0.6
2327.5 ± 11.523.2 ± 7.61.5 ± 0.5
Sorin CrownStended1918.7 ± 5.110.3 ± 3.01.13 ± 0.17
2120.215.4
2314.04 ± 4.917.56 ± 3.38
2517.0 ± 11.3110.8 ± 6.51
2713.0 ± 3.06.57 ± 1.7
St. Jude MedicalStentless2122.6 ± 14.510.7 ± 7.21.3 ± 0.6
2316.2 ± 9.08.2 ± 4.71.6 ± 0.6
2512.7 ± 8.26.3 ± 4.11.8 ± 0.5
2710.1 ± 5.85.0 ± 2.92.0 ± 0.3
297.7 ± 4.44.1 ± 2.42.4 ± 0.6
St Jude Medial EpicStended1943.5 ± 12.725.6 ± 8.0
2127.2 ± 7.617.3 ± 6.2
2328.9 ± 7.516.1 ± 6.2
2524.0 ± 7.112.9 ± 4.6
2722.1 ± 8.212.1 ± 5.5
299.9 ± 2.9
St Jude Medical PercevalSutureless2122.6 ± 10.610.9 ± 5.11.40 ± 0.37
2321.1 ± 8.410.5 ± 4.51.52 ± 0.41
2517.9 ± 6.59.5 ± 3.81.49 ± 0.35

Normal values for Aortic Valve Mechanical Prothesis

ValveTypeSize (mm)Peak Gradient (mmHg)Mean Gradient (mmHg)Effective Orifice Area (cm²)
ATSBileaflet1947.0 ± 12.625.3 ± 81.1 ± 0.3
2123.7 ± 6.815.9 ± 5.01.4 ± 0.5
2314.4 ± 4.91.7 ± 0.5
2511.3 ± 3.72.1 ± 0.7
278.4 ± 3.72.5 ± 0.1
298.0 ± 3.03.1 ± 0.8
1821.0 ± 1.81.2 ± 0.3
2021.4 ± 4.211.1 ± 3.51.3 ± 0.3
2218.7 ± 8.310.5 ± 4.51.7 ± 0.4
2415.1 ± 5.67.5 ± 3.12.0 ± 0.6
266.0 ± 2.02.1 ± 0.4
Bjork-ShileySingle tilting disc2138.9 ± 11.921.8 ± 3.41.1 ± 0.3
2328.8 ± 11.215.7 ± 5.31.3 ± 0.3
2523.7 ± 8.213.0 ± 5.01.5 ± 0.4
2710.0 ± 2.01.6 ± 0.3
Carbomedics ReducedBileaflet1943.4 ± 1.224.4 ± 1.21.2 ± 0.1
Carbomedics StandardBileaflet1938.0 ± 12.818.9 ± 8.31.0 ± 0.3
2126.8 ± 10.112.9 ± 5.41.5 ± 0.4
2322.5 ± 7.411.0 ± 4.61.4 ± 0.3
2519.6 ± 7.89.1 ± 3.51.8 ± 0.4
2717.5 ± 7.17.9 ± 3.22.2 ± 0.2
299.1 ± 4.75.6 ± 3.03.2 ± 1.6
Carbomedics TophatBileaflet2130.2 ± 10.914.9 ± 5.41.2 ± 0.3
2324.2 ± 7.612.5 ± 4.41.4 ± 0.4
259.5 ± 2.91.6 ± 0.32
Edwards DuromedicsBileaflet2139.0 ± 13
2332.0 ± 8.0
2526.0 ± 10.0
2724.0 ± 10.0
Edwards MiraBileaflet1918.2 ± 5.31.2 ± 0.4
2113.3 ± 4.31.6 ± 0.4
2314.7 ± 2.81.6 ± 0.6
2513.1 ± 3.81.9
MCRI On-XBileaflet1921.3 ± 10.811.8 ± 3.41.5 ± 0.2
2116.4 ± 5.99.9 ± 3.61.7 ± 0.4
2315.9 ± 6.48.6 ± 3.41.9 ± 0.6
2516.5 ± 10.26.9 ± 4.32.4 ± 0.6
Medtronic AdvantageBileaflet2310.4 ± 3.12.2 ± 0.3
259.0 ± 3.72.8 ± 0.6
277.6 ± 3.63.3 ± 0.7
296.1 ± 3.83.9 ±0.7
Medtronic HallSingle tilting disc2034.4 ± 13.117.1 ± 5.31.2 ± 0.5
2126.9 ± 10.514.1 ± 5.91.1 ± 0.2
2326.9 ± 8.913.5 ± 4.81.4 ± 0.4
2517.1 ± 7.09.5 ± 4.31.5 ± 0.5
2718.9 ± 9.78.7 ± 5.61.9 ± 0.2
Monostrut Bjork-ShileySingle tilting disc1927.4 ± 8.8
2127.5 ± 3.120.5 ± 6.2
2320.3 ± 0.717.4 ± 6.4
2516.1 ± 4.9
2711.4 ± 3.8
OmnicarbonSingle tilting disc2137.4 ± 12.820.4 ± 5.41.3 ± 0.5
2328.8 ± 9.117.4 ± 4.91.5 ± 0.3
2523.7 ± 8.113.2 ± 4.61.9 ± 0.5
2720.1 ± 4.212.4 ± 2.92.1 ± 0.4
OmniscienceSingle tilting disc2150.8 ± 2.828.2 ± 2.20.9 ± 0.1
2339.8 ± 8.720.1 ± 5.11.0 ± 0.1
Sorin BicarbonBileaflet1930.1 ± 4.516.7 ± 2.01.4 ± 0.1
2122.0 ± 7.110.0 ± 3.31.2 ± 0.4
2316.8 ± 6.17.7 ± 3.31.5 ± 0.2
2511.2 ± 3.15.6 ± 1.62.4 ± 0.3
St. Jude Medical Haem PlusBileaflet1928.5 ± 10.717.0 ± 7.81.9 ± 0.1
2116.3 ± 17.010.6 ± 5.11.8 ± 0.5
2316.8 ± 7.312.1 ± 4.21.7 ± 0.5
St. Jude Medical RegentBileaflet1920.6 ± 1211.0 ± 4.91.6 ± 0.4
2115.6 ± 9.48.0 ± 4.82.0 ± 0.7
2312.8 ± 6.86.9 ± 3.52.3 ± 0.9
2511.7 ± 6.85.6 ± 3.22.5 ± 0.8
277.9 ± 5.53.5 ± 1.73.6 ± 0.5
St. Jude Medical StandardBileaflet1942.0 ± 10.024.5 ± 5.81.5 ± 0.1
2125.7 ± 9.515.2 ± 5.01.4 ± 0.4
2321.8 ± 7.513.4 ± 5.61.6 ± 0.4
2518.9 ± 7.311.0 ± 5.31.9 ± 0.5
2713.7 ± 4.28.4 ± 3.42.5 ± 0.4
2913.5 ± 5.87.0 ± 1.72.8 ± 0.5
Starr EdwardsCaged ball2332.6 ± 12.822.0 ± 9.01.1 ± 0.2
2434.1 ± 10.322.1 ± 7.51.1 ± 0.3
2631.8 ± 9.019.7 ± 6.1
2730.8 ± 6.318.5 ± 3.7
2929.0 ± 9.316.3 ± 5.5

Normal values for Transcatheter Aortic Valve Prothesis

ValveSizeDayPeak Gradient (mmHg)Mean Gradient (mmHg)Peak Velocity (m/s)Effective orifice area (cm²)
Sapien23Discharge11.90 ± 3.608.13 ± 4.292.20 ± 0.301.55 ± 0.34
231 year21.20 ± 11.9012.50 ± 6.902.20 ± 0.601.67 ± 0.46
26Discharge9.50 ± 5.206.12 ± 3.171.90 ± 0.401.84 ± 0.42
261 year13.90 ± 8.007.90 ± 4.101.80 ± 0.502.00 ± 0.65
Sapien III2030 days16.70 ± 5.601.20 ± 0.20
23Discharge11.23 ± 5.991.52 ± 0.27
2330 days13.00 ± 5.401.50± 0.30
26Discharge9.55 ± 3.601.84 ± 0.32
29Discharge8.65 ± 3.192.23 ± 0.41
2930 days9.20 ± 3.101.90 ± 0.40
Sapien XT20Discharge12.19 ± 5.161.50 ± 0.30
23Discharge19.70 ± 6.5010.36 ± 4.481.48 ± 0.38
26Discharge8.51 ± 5.331.86 ± 0.56
29Discharge9.35 ± 4.842.24 ± 0.79
2930 days15.40 ± 6.708.30 ± 3.502.50 ± 4.00
296 month15.80 ± 6.708.30 ± 3.001.90 ± 0.50
291 year18.00 ± 7.809.10 ± 4.002.00 ± 0.60
Portico23Discharge18.60 ± 8.9010.08 ± 2.631.38 ± 0.27
2330 days10.90 ± 3.801.30 ± 0.20
Corevalve26Discharge7.80 ± 3.001.80 ± 0.301.83 ± 0.57
261 year11.90 ± 5.706.80 ± 3.301.70 ± 0.401.90 ± 0.53
29Discharge14.60 ± 6.608.50 ± 3.701.87 ± 0.432.24 ± 0.79
291 year14.80 ± 7.408.30 ± 3.801.90 ± 0.502.11 ± 0.42
Lotus2330 days13.50 ± 3.20
2530 days11.70 ± 5.30
2730 days11.80 ± 4.30
Engager23Discharge12.60 ± 5.90

Normal values for Mitral Valve Biologic Prothesis

ValveTypeSize (mm)Peak Gradient (mmHg)Mean Gradient(mmHg)Peak Velocity (m/s)Pressure Half Time (ms)Effective Orifice Area (cm²)
BiocorStentless 2713 ± 1
2914 ± 2.5
3111.5 ± 0.5
3312 ± 0.5
Bioflo pericardialStented 2510 ± 26.3 ± 1.52.0 ± 0.1
279.5 ± 2.65.4 ± 1.22.0± 0.3
295 ± 2.83.6 ± 12.4 ± 0.2
314.02.02.3
Carpentier-EdwardsStented 276 ± 21.7 ± 0.398 ± 28
294.7 ± 21.76 ± 0.2792 ± 14
314.4 ± 21.54 ± 0.1592 ± 19
336 ± 393 ± 12
Carpentier-Edwards pericardialStented 273.61.6100
295.25 ± 2.361.67 ± 0.3110 ± 15
314.05 ± 0.831.53 ± 0.190 ± 11
231.00.880
Hancock I (or NOS)Stented 2710 ± 45 ± 21.3 ± 0.8
297 ± 32.46 ± 0.79115 ± 201.5 ± 0.2
314 ± 0.864.86 ± 1.6995 ± 171.6 ± 0.2
333 ± 23.87 ± 290 ± 121.9 ± 0.2
Hancock IIStented272.21 ± 0.14
292.77 ± 0.11
312.84 ± 0.1
333.15 ± 0.22
Hancock pericardialStented 292.61 ± 1.391.42 ± 0.14105 ± 36
313.57 ± 1.021.51 ± 0.2781 ± 23
Ionescu-ShileyStented 254.87 ± 1.081.43 ± 0.1593 ± 11
273.21 ± 0.821.31 ± 0.24100 ± 28
293.22 ± 0.571.38 ± 0.285 ± 8
313.63 ± 0.91.45 ± 0.06100 ± 36
Ionescu-Shiley low profileStented293.31 ± 0.961.36 ± 0.2580 ± 30
312.74 ± 0.371.33 ± 0.1479 ± 15
Labcor-Santiago pericardialStented 258.74.5972.2
275.6 ± 2.32.8 ± 1.585 ± 182.12 ± 0.48
296.2 ± 2.13 ± 1.380 ± 342.11 ± 0.73
Medtronic Intact PorcineStented 293.5 ± 0.511.6 ± 0.22
314.2 ± 1.441.6 ± 0.26
334 ± 1.31.4 ± 0.24
353.2 ± 1.771.3 ± 0.5
MitroflowStented 256.92.090
273.07 ± 0.911.590 ± 20
293.5 ± 1.651.43 ± 0.29102 ± 21
313.85 ± 0.811.32 ± 0.2691 ± 22
Quadrileaflet bovine pericardialStentless 262.2 ± 1.71.6103 ± 311.7
281.58 ± 0.251.7 ± 0.6
301.42 ± 0.322.3 ± 0.4
WessexStented 293.69 ± 0.611.66 ± 0.1783 ± 19
313.31 ± 0.831.41 ± 0.2580 ± 21

Normal values for Mitral Valve Mechanical Prothesis

ValveTypeSize (mm)Peak Gradient(mmHg)Mean Gradient (mmHg)Peak Velocity (m/s)Pressure Half Time (ms)Effective Orifice Area (cm2)
Bjork-ShileyTilting disc231.7115
2512 ± 46 ± 21.75 ± 0.3899 ± 271.72 ± 0.6
2710 ± 45 ± 21.6 ± 0.4989 ± 281.81 ± 0.54
297.83 ± 2.932.83 ± 1.271.37 ± 0.2579 ± 172.1 ± 0.43
316 ± 32 ± 1.91.41 ± 0.2670 ± 142.2 ± 0.3
Bjork-Shiley monostrutTilting disc235.01.9
2513 ± 2.55.57 ± 2.31.8 ± 0.3
2712 ± 2.54.53 ± 2.21.7 ± 0.4
2913 ± 34.26 ± 1.61.6 ± 0.3
3114 ± 4.54.9 ± 1.61.7 ± 0.3
CarbomedicsBileaflet231.9 ± 0.1126 ± 7
2510.3 ± 2.33.6 ± 0.61.3 ± 0.193 ± 82.9 ± 0.8
278.79 ± 3.463.46 ± 1.031.61 ± 0.389 ± 202.9 ± 0.75
298.78 ± 2.93.39 ± 0.971.52 ± 0.388 ± 172.3 ± 0.4
318.87 ± 2.343.32 ± 0.871.61 ± 0.2992 ± 242.8 ± 1.14
338.8 ± 2.24.8 ± 2.51.5 ± 0.293 ± 12
DuromedicsBileaflet2713 ± 65 ± 31.61 ± 0.475 ± 12
2910 ± 43 ± 11.40 ± 0.2585 ± 22
3110.5 ± 4.333.3 ± 1.361.38 ± 0.2781 ± 12
3311.22.585
Lillehei-KasterTilting disc181.7140
201.767
221.56 ± 0.0994 ± 22
251.38 ± 0.27124 ± 46
Medtronic HallTilting disc271.478
291.57 ± 0.169 ± 15
311.45 ± 0.1277 ± 17
OmnicarbonTilting disc238.0
256.05 ± 1.811.77 ± 0.24102 ± 16
274.89 ± 2.051.63 ± 0.36105 ± 33
294.93 ± 2.161.56 ± 0.27120 ± 40
314.18 ± 1.41.3 ± 0.23134 ± 31
334 ± 2
On-XBileaflet2511.5 ± 3.25.3 ± 2.11.9 ± 1.1
2710.3 ± 4.54.5 ± 1.62.2 ± 0.5
2910.3 ± 4.54.5 ± 1.62.2 ± 0.5
319.8 ± 3.84.8 ± 2.42.5 ± 1.1
339.8 ± 3.84.8 ± 2.42.5 ± 1.1
Sorin AllcarbonTilting disc2515 ± 0.254 ± 0.51.95 ± 0.0270 ± 1
2711 ± 2.754 ± 0.51.65 ± 0.2182 ± 20
2912 ± 34 ± 1.251.73 ± 0.2280 ± 14
3110 ± 1.54 ± 11.66 ± 0.1183 ± 14
St. Jude MedicalBileaflet234.01.51601.0
252.5 ± 11.34 ± 1.1275 ± 41.35 ± 0.17
2711 ± 45 ± 1.821.61 ± 0.2975 ± 101.67 ± 0.17
2910 ± 34.15 ± 1.81.57 ± 0.2985 ± 101.75 ± 0.24
3112 ± 64.46 ± 2.221.59 ± 0.3374 ± 132.03 ± 0.32
Starr-EdwardsCaged ball2610.01.4
287 ± 2.751.9 ± 0.57
3012.2 ± 4.66.99 ± 2.51.7 ± 0.3125 ± 251.65 ± 0.4
3211.5 ± 4.25.08 ± 2.51.7 ± 0.3110 ± 251.98 ± 0.4
345.02.6

 

 

 

JASE,2009,sept;22(9):975-1014

JACC,2012,vol.5,no.4,2012